Oil paint - material which perform the role of a synthetic or natural varnish . The main drawback of oil paint is its propensity to aging (which entails the loss of color , the level of adhesion and elasticity ) . In addition, explicit " outs " are low weatherability and created decorative coatings, long drying time (at least daily) . Most commonly used oil paints in living conditions for staining wood , concrete, metal and other surfaces. Almost completely out of the market paints enamels and alkyd paints , which replaced , in turn, are water-based paints .
Frost resistance - a material property of being able to maintain their performance at the proper level when exposed to negative temperatures . This concept applies to both the paintwork and directly to LMC . In the second case investigated how well a material can maintain its properties after thawing. Assessment of the level produced by the number of frost cycles of freezing / thawing , no significant impact on the characteristics of the material . According to the state standards called frost paint , if it is able to withstand up to five such cycles.
Fire resistance - the ability of materials to counter the open flame . To determine the fire resistance using special stands. Classification is performed based on the fire resistance of the time interval during which the test material does not lose its important design or structural properties , the opposite surface temperature does not exceed 220 degrees, not having through holes capable of passing through the combustion products themselves . Fire resistance of wood and metal building materials and structures is increased by staining. It uses a special fire-retardant materials , paints and varnishes , which are composed of flame retardants .
Called finely powdered pigment ( particle size not exceeding 0.01 micrometer ) crystalline material that is insoluble in organic solvents and water. That pigment ( black, colored and white ) is the only component of paint, which is determined by its consumption . Pigments may be either artificial or mineral origin . Currently in the paint industry increasingly popular artificial pigments, largely due to their higher stability , richness and purity. To change the base color inks are special pigment paste comprising a pigment which is dispersed and subjected to a treatment of surface- active additives . This makes it possible to introduce a pigment into paint without significant shear .
Polymers - this organic compound whose molecules are a large number of repeating units of monomers. If the main chain of the macromolecule consists of identical units , the polymers are gomotsepnym . Otherwise (main circuit includes different structure inclusion ) are called hetero- polymers . Polyurethane , polyvinyl acetate and polyacrylic polymers used in aqueous paint systems consisting of film formers .
LMC is a bundle of heterogeneous process areas of paint placed in a container. At the bottom is thus precipitate on the surface and - a transparent substance . In such situations, after mixing paint can completely recover their initial characteristics . The reason may be the bundle LMC coagulation dispersion systems ( for example , the bundle is often the result of freezing paint).
Lightfastness - property paint is its ability to resist the influence of the sun's rays . This term is used mainly in relation to the binder material and determines the possibility of outdoor use. Furthermore pigment fading that depends on the color stability , degradation may occur film formed by a paint material, which usually manifests as clouding or yellowing varnish and paint. To correct level of light fastness can use special additives UV absorbers .
Hardness is called one of the main operational and mechanical properties of industrial paintwork - the ability of the paint film to resist the effects of strain or the process of destruction under the influence of external loads. To determine the hardness of the paint film can be used static methods scratching and squeezing . For this purpose, the test coverage is pressed obviously much more solid. When this estimate is made of the desired force or deformation is measured under a given load (e.g. , the diameter of the trace resulting from the impact of the tip of a spherical shape). Hardness scarring can also be measured as the force required for the remaining track . The second option - estimate the amount of deformation is obtained by external influence. Besides, for evaluation of hardness may be used and the dynamic methods . For example , the hardness is determined by the damping of the oscillations of the pendulum in contact with a surface coated with coatings .